DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICS
The research activities of this Section aims at producing geological
maps of the ocean floor and the sub-floor at different scales by using different surveying and sampling techniques. These maps show the lithology, stratigraphy and structures of the seafloor and the subseafloor in our EEZ and provide the data base for evaluating non-living resources potential. Our marine geologists also study near-shore and shallower regions such as inner continental shelf and coast where ocean and atmosphere dynamically interact to produce complex and rapidly changing morphology. Such studies are essential for coastal zone development and management.
The Indus delta has been chosen for geological and geophysical mapping on priority basis. In this region the greatest potential exist for living as well as non-living resources. The interaction of sediments from the Indus with the chemical and physical conditions over geological times affecting the ecology of the Indus Delta is the dominant factor for the prospects in the area.
With the acceptance of plate tectonics as driving force behind ocean ridge and basin formation marine scientists are endeavouring to understand, resolve, and map the evolution of ridge basin complex of the northern Arabian Sea, determine the marine hydrocarbon and minerals potential and study recent coastal tectonic activity and offshore earthquake events for evaluating earthquake and Tsunami hazards in the coastal region.
The main research interests in this field :
- Geological processes and Geomorphology of the coastal areas.
- Sedimentation and Sedimentary processes in Indus Delta and Makran Margin.
- Geo-hazards and coastal environment.
- Exploration of placer minerals and other non-living resources.
- Identification and evaluation of potential areas for hydrocarbon resources in EEZ.
- Study of sub-bottom strata for the laying submarine cables, pipelines and building coastal and offshore engineering structures.
- Paleoceanography and reconstruction of climatic history from marine sediments.
OCEAN TECHNOLOGY, COASTAL
HYDRAULICS & COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
is influenced by intensive SW Monsoon waves and currents including erosion
and siltation. The deposition of silt by river Indus also interacts with the
shore processes. The inundation of the coast therefore, requires a systematic
hydraulic and hydro-dynamic investigation all along the coast. Data on waves,
tides, currents and littoral transport are collected for application in
coastal protection, planning of ports etc.
Numerical models of harbours, bays,
estuaries for investigating the effects of tidal heights and currents are
also prepared. Occupance and path of cyclones and effect of storm surges on
the coast are studied for evaluating shore erosion, through Numerical Models.
There is a need for a systematic hydrodynamic and
hydraulic investigation all along the coast, which has considerable impact on
design study of various marine structures, establishment of coastal industry,
intake water system for nuclear plants, and heavy industry and draining into
the sea, etc. The coastal morphological conditions, beach profiles, coastal
long-shore and transport are directly related to beach stabilization; scaling
of dredged harbors and sand accumulation in the vicinity of jetties or other
coastal and off-shore structures; development of numerical models to determine
suitable solutions for siltation, erosion and protection problems. Deep Sea
fishing and Deep Sea mining require special techniques e.g. for off shore
structures, pipe-lines, submarine cables etc, to operate the specialized gear.
The data required for such operations is also specific and differs from other
types of general observations. The Environmental studies depend upon close
examinations of the various parameters.
A base has already been started in the NIO with a modest system. It is proving of
immense utility in various aspects of the work. The enhanced computer
capability will enable the research in NIO to cover such fields as Satellite
Imagery interpretation and remote sensing. Remote sensing and latest
improvements in the technique have enabled the hydrographic conditions (i.e.
sea water temperature, salinity etc. distribution and movement) to be observed
over large area through satellite signals.
NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER
The National Oceanographic Data Committee (NODC) of the pakistan acts as a national repository for all types of oceanographic data pertaining to the territorial waters and EEZ of Pakistan. The NODC has basic computer facilities for storing and retiving information.
NODC-Pakistan is a part of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Pakistan. Ocean and marine data and information are very important for research, but also for monitoring, predicting and managing the marine environment, assessing fish stocks and biodiversity, offshore engineering, controling any hazard or disaster, and tourist industry.
NIO has established a National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) for effective data management for researchers, administrators, planners and
coastal area developers. NODC is not only managing data collected by NIO scientists during various sea trips/cruises but also receives data from
World Data Centre (WDC) as well as International Oceanographic Data Centres around the world. The wide variety of data includes physical
oceanographic parameters of waves, tides, current data and temperature-salinity profiles, chemical oceanographic data comprising of distribution
of nutrients and chlorophyll, geological and geophysical data about sediment distribution, coastal erosion/accretion, data about subsurface
geology and potential for non-living resources. All these data sets contribute towards the economic development of the country through